Horse Bit Severity Guide

Have you ever been overwhelmed by the copious amounts of bit variations available on tack websites or at tack stores? You’re absolutely not alone! Even experienced horsemen and women are frequently confused or uneducated on all the different types of bits out there today. This is about horse bit guide.

There’s also a lot of media hype about bit usage and the degrees of bit severity.  Some equestrian “influencers” are encouraging people to go “bitless,” while others claim that bits are a useful and humane tool when used correctly.

I’m not here to tell you how to feel on that issue necessarily;  I only hope to shed some light on the different categories of bits in the market today, and what the purposes of each are.  

The more you know about bits, the better equipped you are to make educated decisions when deciding how to and whether or not you are going to bit your horse. In this article, I’ll be discussing the different categories and severities of snaffle bits, curb bits, pelham bits, and gag bits.

Why Are There So Many Options about Horse Bit Guide?

So, a bit is essentially a piece of metal that sits behind a horse’s teeth.  If it’s so simple, why are there hundreds of variations and options of bits to choose from? The answer to this question is that every horse is unique.

Every horse’s brain is unique, every horse’s build is unique, and the way that every horse feels and responds to a bit is unique.  The aid of the bit is a very psychological aid for a horse. Horses can weigh up to two tons, do we really believe that a 5’ piece of metal in their mouths is going to stop them from doing something they want to do?

Why Are There So Many Options about Horse Bit Guide?

Of course not.  Instead, the presence of a bit is a communication tool; the communication flows from the bit in the horse’s mouth to the rider’s hand, to the horse’s brain.  And, because each horse is going to process this contact differently, different types of bit are needed.

Some horses simply don’t care about the presence of a bit.  They ignore cues from it, hang on it, etc., and sometimes horses like this need a stronger bit. 

Some horses are extremely sensitive to the presence of a bit.  Any movement of the bit or give or release of pressure will change the way they go around.  Frequently, these horses will need a softer, less harsh bit.

Finding the right bit is always a trial and error process.  Sometimes a horse will go in different bits for different things.  For example, my horse goes in a D-Ring twisted snaffle for jumping but a Happy-Mouth pelham for flatting.  Simply put, every horse is unique!

Horse Bit Guide: Snaffle Bits

Snaffle bits are notoriously the most simple and least severe type of bit. But, it is also the most diverse category of bit, and as such there are special variations of snaffle bits that can be harsh and complicated.

Snaffle bits act “directly on the corners of the mouth, tongue, and jaw without any leverage, and has the effect of drawing the head upwards and inwards,” according to  

Snaffles have three different pieces that can be changed in order to change the effect of the bit.  These are the joints, the ring, and the mouthpiece.  

The joints break up pieces of the mouthpiece of the bit; there are traditionally one, two, or no joints on a snaffle.  The rings are at the ends of the mouthpiece and connect the mouthpiece to the rest of the bridle. The mouthpiece, obviously, is what goes inside the horse’s mouth.

Horse Bit Guide: Curb Bits

Curb bits are known for being very severe, but also for being used for very specialized purposes. The Curb bits are frequently used in upper-level dressage. This is where a rider has to be able to communicate many different movements to a horse, in subtle cues.

Curb bits have a shank and a chain that connects under the horse’s jaw and chin area.  They present the horse with significantly more leverage than almost any snaffle bit.

According to, “…the effect of this leverage is to increase pressure on the tongue and jaw, and add pressure to the poll, which encourages a lowering of the head and increased flexion in the jaw.  These bits are more severe and require a sensitive touch to be used correctly.”

Pelham Bits

Pelham bits are frequently used in the hunter/jumper ring.  They have two sets of reins, attached to one bit.  Pelham bits also allow for additional leverage to be presented to the horse, allowing the rider to have to apply less pressure on the bit to get the desired result.

Pelham bits encourage the horse to soften its pressure on the bit and seek the rider’s guidance from the hand.

Horse Bit Guide: Gag Bits

Gag bits are kind of a happy medium between curb bits and pelham bits, in terms of severity.  Gag bits appear to look like snaffle bits, but they also provide the opportunity for the use of a second rein.

This second rein encourages downward movement of the horse’s neck and poll, versus the softness of contact that the Pelham’s encourage.

Horse Bit Guide: Gag Bits


There are many bits to choose from, and the best thing you can do is educate yourself! And, as always, consult a professional; your trainer, a pro-rider, even your vet.  Make sure your tack fits your horse and that you are riding in a manner suited for the type of bit that your horse is using.

Again, finding the right bit is a lot of trial and error.  You may have to invest money into bits that don’t work before you finally find the one that does.  It’s a great learning process, and you can resell bits that you don’t use! 

I hope this article helped break up the categories of bits into more comprehensive segments for you.  If so, please share this article, and share with us your experience trying and learning about different types of bits!

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