Have you ever been overwhelmed by the copious amounts of bit variations available on tack websites or at tack stores? You’re absolutely not alone! Even experienced horsemen and women are frequently confused or uneducated on all the different types of bits out there today. This is about horse bit guide.
There’s also a lot of media hype about bit usage and the degrees of bit severity. Some equestrian “influencers” are encouraging people to go “bitless,” while others claim that bits are a useful and humane tool when used correctly.
I’m not here to tell you how to feel on that issue necessarily; I only hope to shed some light on the different categories of bits in the market today, and what the purposes of each are.
The more you know about bits, the better equipped you are to make educated decisions when deciding how to and whether or not you are going to bit your horse. In this article, I’ll be discussing the different categories and severities of snaffle bits, curb bits, pelham bits, and gag bits.
Why Are There So Many Options about Horse Bit Guide?
So, a bit is essentially a piece of metal that sits behind a horse’s teeth. If it’s so simple, why are there hundreds of variations and options of bits to choose from? The answer to this question is that every horse is unique.
Every horse’s brain is unique, every horse’s build is unique, and the way that every horse feels and responds to a bit is unique. The aid of the bit is a very psychological aid for a horse. Horses can weigh up to two tons, do we really believe that a 5’ piece of metal in their mouths is going to stop them from doing something they want to do?
Of course not. Instead, the presence of a bit is a communication tool; the communication flows from the bit in the horse’s mouth to the rider’s hand, to the horse’s brain. And, because each horse is going to process this contact differently, different types of bit are needed.
Some horses simply don’t care about the presence of a bit. They ignore cues from it, hang on it, etc., and sometimes horses like this need a stronger bit.
Some horses are extremely sensitive to the presence of a bit. Any movement of the bit or give or release of pressure will change the way they go around. Frequently, these horses will need a softer, less harsh bit.
Finding the right bit is always a trial and error process. Sometimes a horse will go in different bits for different things. For example, my horse goes in a D-Ring twisted snaffle for jumping but a Happy-Mouth pelham for flatting. Simply put, every horse is unique!
Read about Types Of Western Bits
Horse Bit Guide: Snaffle Bits
Snaffle bits are notoriously the most simple and least severe type of bit. But, it is also the most diverse category of bit, and as such there are special variations of snaffle bits that can be harsh and complicated.
Snaffle bits act “directly on the corners of the mouth, tongue, and jaw without any leverage, and has the effect of drawing the head upwards and inwards,” according to TheBitGuide.com.
These bits have three different pieces that can be changed in order to change the effect of the bit. These are the joints, the ring, and the mouthpiece.
The joints break up pieces of the mouthpiece of the bit; there are traditionally one, two, or no joints on a snaffle. The rings are at the ends of the mouthpiece and connect the mouthpiece to the rest of the bridle. The mouthpiece, obviously, is what goes inside the horse’s mouth.
Horse Bit Guide: Curb Bits
Curb bits are known for being very severe, but also for being used for very specialized purposes. The Curb bits are frequently used in upper-level dressage. This is where a rider has to be able to communicate many different movements to a horse, in subtle cues.
Curb bits have a shank and a chain that connects under the horse’s jaw and chin area. They present the horse with significantly more leverage than almost any snaffle bit.
According to TheBitGuide.com, “…the effect of this leverage is to increase pressure on the tongue and jaw, and add pressure to the poll, which encourages a lowering of the head and increased flexion in the jaw. These bits are more severe and require a sensitive touch to be used correctly.”
Pelham bits are frequently used in the hunter/jumper ring. They have two sets of reins, attached to one bit. Pelham bits also allow for additional leverage to be presented to the horse, allowing the rider to have to apply less pressure on the bit to get the desired result.
Pelham bits encourage the horse to soften its pressure on the bit and seek the rider’s guidance from the hand.
Horse Bit Guide: Gag Bits
Gag bits are kind of a happy medium between curb bits and pelham bits, in terms of severity. Gag bits appear to look like snaffle bits, but they also provide the opportunity for the use of a second rein.
This second rein encourages downward movement of the horse’s neck and poll, versus the softness of contact that the Pelham’s encourage.
Read about Types of English Horse Bits
There are many bits to choose from, and the best thing you can do is educate yourself! And, as always, consult a professional; your trainer, a pro-rider, even your vet. Make sure your tack fits your horse and that you are riding in a manner suited for the type of bit that your horse is using.
Again, finding the right bit is a lot of trial and error. You may have to invest money into bits that don’t work before you finally find the one that does. It’s a great learning process, and you can resell bits that you don’t use!
I hope this article helped break up the categories of bits into more comprehensive segments for you. If so, please share this article, and share with us your experience trying and learning about different types of bits!
What determines the harshness of a horse bit?
There are several factors that play a part in determining the “harshness” of a bit. As with many other pieces of equipment, much of the severity comes from the rider. This includes the rider’s hands (are they soft or hard?), understanding of the bit mechanics (do they know how it works?), and ability to cue or control the horse. However, factors affecting bit function include the amount of leverage, the circumference of the mouthpieces, the type of mouthpiece, and pressure points.
What is the gentlest bit for a horse?
Although it is largely dependent upon an individual rider’s hands and instruction, the gentlest horse bit is often considered to be a three-piece thick eggbutt snaffle. Regular snaffles are generally considered gentle bits, although they can be as severe as the hands controlling them.
Even regular snaffles have a single joint, which can create a painful nutcracker effect on the horse’s roof of the mouth when engaged. A three-piece French link bit will have a flat oval centerpiece that does not apply excessive tongue pressure (unlike the similar Dr. Bristol mouthpiece). This prevents a single joint from popping the mouth. Eggbutt cheek pieces are gentle without the pinch risk of loose rings, and thicker mouthpieces are gentler on the horse’s sensitive bars and gums.
What is the strongest bit for a horse?
There many more “strong” bit choices than there are “gentle”. Although most competition agencies have strict rules against extreme bits, some industries such as barrel racing have many organizations without bit regulations or very loose rules. In terms of severity, a spade bit would be considered an instrument of torture on an untrained horse.
Vaquero trained horses can take up to 7-9 years before they are ready for such an advanced bit, and the rider must also be trained to utilize this bit correctly. Aside from spade bits, factors in “severity” include twisted wire mouthpieces, jagged mouthpieces that will irritate the gums, ports that will hit the palate, chain or twisted wire nose pieces with combination bits, and types of gags. Popular Tom Thumb bits are also thought to be severe given they lack pre-signal with straight shanks and possess a single joint.
How do I choose the right bit for my horse?
If history is available, it is best to first find out what type of bit the horse was previously ridden in and what training a horse has. Just because you ride western, does not mean your horse neck reins and can be ridden adequately in a grazing curb bit.
Putting a horse in an advance bit beyond its training level can be considered cruel and severe. We recommend consulting a reputable horse trainer in your area or visiting a tack shop for bit information. Myler bits have a wonderful number system in terms of training with a detailed book on choosing bits. Most horses start well in a basic snaffle, and owners can determine what bit to try based on results with a snaffle.
What are horse bits in order of harshness?
Horse bits cannot be ranked, because even severe bits can be gentle in the right circumstances. A simple snaffle can also be abused and in the case of thin wire bits, a horse can lose a tongue! However, from an industry-standard, bits are viewed in the following order:
- Snaffles are introduction bits and considered mild.
- Standard curb bits (such as grazing bits) are used for horses that are “finished” and neck rein. Little hand cues are needed with these bits.
- Correctional bits are where added features can become very harsh. The possibilities are endless.
- Spade bits are again classified as the harshest. However, these are only meant for elite riders and horses. Under the right circumstances, there is no cruelty or harshness involved due to the extreme levels of training.