We all want to keep our horses in perfect health and that often involves a lot of hands-on, close-contact work. Rabies and ringworm are two diseases that might be on your radar, but have you ever wondered what other diseases you could get from your partner like equine infectious anemia? and do you know if can humans get equine infectious anemia?
What is Equine Infectious Anemia?
Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA), aka Swamp Fever, is a disease you may have heard your veterinarian mention during routine shots, or maybe you once took a close look at your Coggins Test paperwork.
It’s a viral disease of horses that is generally transmitted by biting flies – like horseflies. It is a lentivirus, like the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and is so dangerous that any equine that tests positive has to be quarantined 200 yards away from any other horse.
Pretty scary, right? Equine Infectious Anemia is a major disease of horses and ponies but is rarer in mules and even rarer in donkeys. (Spoiler alert: it has to do with genetics.)
It is such a major disease that it was first described in 1843 and was one of the very first lentiviruses to be discovered! On top of that, it was the first animal disease that was determined to have been caused by a virus back in 1904. The virus was finally isolated in the late 1960s.
How Does Equine Infectious Anemia Spread?
Luckily for us, this virus doesn’t survive long outside of a horse! When a fly bites an infected horse, the virus hitches a ride on the fly’s mouthparts to its next victim. If the fly doesn’t find one within four hours, the virus dies. Humans can also accidentally transmit it through contaminated syringes, so it’s good practice to never reuse a needle!
What Are the Signs My Horse has EIA?
There are three different stages: acute, chronic, and unapparent.
During the acute stage horses will suddenly become sick, have a high fever, anemia, weakness, swelling of the lower parts of the body, a weak pulse, irregular heartbeat, and possibly even sudden death.
In chronic cases, the symptoms are recurrent fever, depression, weight loss, anemia, and swelling of the lower part of the body.
Finally, horses with unapparent EIA show no outward signs of the disease.
How Can I Prevent EIA?
There is no vaccine, so the only way to prevent EIA is to keep your horse away from carriers (horse flies, deer flies, or other infected horses). A routine Coggins Test makes sure that no EIA-positive horses cross state borders or attend shows.
Even if your horse isn’t sick it’s still wise to test them before moving them from one barn to another. Veterinarians have noted that most horses with the disease appear healthy, but they can still pass the disease to other horses.
So Can Humans Get Equine Infectious Anemia?
Why Can’t Humans get EIA?
It turns out that lentiviruses are very specific to the species it infects. These viruses need a special receptor that is only found on equine cells and therefore cannot infect human cells.
While inside of the cell, the virus then requires the host’s genetic code to replicate. That’s why it’s so much rarer in mules and donkeys and is also why we can’t get it.
Since no humans have ever contracted EIA, they have started using it instead of HIV for gene therapy.
I hope this article helped you learn more about equine infectious anemia. If so, please share this article.