How Long Can A Horse Gallop?

Horses are majestic and powerful creatures. As animals of prey, it is important to a horse’s safety it can run for extended periods of time. Caution (instinct), speed, and agility are vital to a horse’s survival. However, much of the endurance we see in wild horses have been removed from our domesticated pets due to captivity and selective breeding. So just how long can a horse gallop? Believe it or not, horses cannot maintain a gallop for near as long as their other gaits. In fact, it’s their shortest endurance threshold.

A Horse’s Gaits

Horses only have four forward gaits. These gaits include the walk, which is a four-beat and the slowest gait. Four beat means the horse travels and each hoof hits the ground at a different time. The trot/jog is one pace up from the walk and is a two-beat gait where hooves hit the ground two at a time. The lope/canter is the next speed, with a three-beat gait. The final and fastest gait of a horse is the gallop. A true gallop is a four-beat gate. The Thoroughbreds seen racing in major races such as the Kentucky Derby are ridden at a full gallop.

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How Fast Can a Horse Run? A Full Gallop

The fastest gallop recorded is from an American Quarter Horse, reaching 55 miles per hour in a quarter-mile sprint. However, the fastest breed of horse is considered to be a Thoroughbred given their ability to sprint long distances.

The average horse’s gallop is approximately 25-30 miles per hour. This is much slower than what you see on the race track or when comparing to some of the fastest Quarter Horses.  However, gallops can only be held for short distances. Horses can only hold a gallop for approximately 2 miles- this will be under training conditions where a horse has been conditioned for this extreme exercise, or in a flight vs fight scenario as an animal of prey. After 2 miles, fatigue will likely set in or a horse can “tie up”.

With slower gaits, horses can travel up to 20 miles. Sudden impact-related hoof issues can also develop from galloping on a hard surface for a prolonged period of time. Horses will suffer serious injury or even death if forced to gallop more than approximately 3 miles.

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Equine Endurance- How Long Can a Horse Gallop?

Horses have some of the best muscle memory of any mammal alive. In nature, a wild horse must travel up to 20 miles per day just to get enough daily food and water requirements. Horses are powerful with a great deal of endurance. In fact, each year northern California hosts the Tevis Cup endurance race, a grueling 100-mile race.

Some breeds such as Arabians and Morgans are known for their high levels of endurance. These horses are not typically racing or being ridden at a full gallop. Arabians are a choice-breed for endurance rides, while Morgans are a close second. Morgans are typically used at a road trot, and spectators can see extreme speeds in roadster classes offered at various breed shows. These classes are fast-paced and exciting, but horses do not break the 2-beat trot undercarriage. But when comparing breeds at the highest speeds, Thoroughbreds still dominate.

Racing

When speaking about galloping, it’s impossible not to mention the Thoroughbred racing industry. As a necessary inclusion, Secretariat is a racing legend in modern history.  Secretariat was the first Triple Crown Winner- meaning he won all three races, the Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes, and the Belmont Stakes. But even these races on the tracks have distance and time limitations.

Galloped racehorses are frequently schooled at a “hand gallop” to help build endurance. It takes consistent work to build the athleticism to run at a full gallop on race day, just as it would for people. Horses in nature forced to gallop for extended periods of time may tire and fall victim to a predator, break a leg on uneven ground, or even suffer a heart attack.

Racing

Final Thoughts

Although a horse can only gallop a few miles before suffering injury or slowing for a break, the gallop is still a high-speed and majestic gait. Humans thrive on the excitement and beauty of watching horses display extravagant athleticism on courses or tracks. However, with horses in captivity, it is our job to ride and exercise them responsibly. Muscle and endurance take time to develop, even if animals have excellent muscle memory and are naturally animals of prey. There is nothing quite like watching a horse stretch out into a full gallop!

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